Rock Avalanching into Lake

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There is a widespread interest in modelling landslide-generated impulse waves, e.g. see Xing et al. 2016.   The simulations were performed during PhD research by Pan Yang to illustrate advanced coupling methods under development with Xiang, J., Pain, C., and Latham, J-P. This … Continued

Breakage in Concrete Armour Units

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The concrete armour units used widely for harbour breakwaters are largely made with unreinforced concrete. There therefore is a risk, especially from dynamic loading as units may become loosened or dislodged or rock during storm action, that fracturing of units … Continued

Fluid-Driven Fracturing

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This work is the collective effort of many researchers: Obeysekara, A., Latham., J.-P., Xiang, J., Lei Q., Salinas P., Pain, C., Yang P. The FEMDEM model with fracturing and an empirical Joint Constitutive Model embedded in Solidity is fully coupled … Continued

Fluid-Solid Coupling

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The immersed body method is employed which solves two separate sets of governing equations for the solid and the fluid, and the iterative coupling is achieved through conservative mesh interpolation using the “supermesh” method O’Farrell et al (2013). The schematic … Continued

Particle Shape Library

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The majority of the research required to create an effectively functioning shape library software package, hosted by Sourceforge within the VGW package was created by Dr Xavier Garcia as a by-product of his PhD research at Imperial College. Numerical simulation that will … Continued

Plasticity Model

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Plasticity models have been developed for implementation in FEMDEM by Nikos Karantzoulis. Supervisors were John-Paul Latham, Jiansheng Xiang and Bassam Izzuddin.   Numerical solution of Governing Equations The general continuous equations of elasto-plasticity are discretised by applying a fully implicit (backward) Euler scheme, … Continued


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Prior to 2005, the combined finite-discrete element method was mostly based on linear tetrahedral finite elements and triangular elements in 2D problems. Locking problems associated with these linear elements can seriously degrade the accuracy of their simulations. Many complex shaped … Continued


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Solidity’s Academic staff: Principal investigator Dr John-Paul Latham +44 (0)207 594 7327 Email:   Lead Developer Dr Jiansheng Xiang +44 (0)207 594 6534 Email:   Solidity’s Current Research Associates Dr Ado Farsi (Developer) Email:   Solidity’s Current … Continued

Excavation Damaged Zone Modelling

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Subsurface rocks embedded with naturally occurring fractures are often encountered in engineering excavations for tunnel construction, hydrocarbon extraction, mining operations, geothermal production and deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. Underground and surface excavations that reload and perturb the rock mass … Continued